Welcome to Seed and Harvest

best time to plant seedlings

Knowing when to plant seedlings is critical for a successful garden. Not timing your planting correctly can cause delays or even harm your seedlings’ overall health.

When selecting when to transplant seedlings outdoors, weather conditions are the most crucial factor. Heat-loving plants should not be transplanted until nighttime temperatures consistently exceed 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

Last frost date

Many gardeners struggle with when to plant seedlings, but the best way to decide when is by checking your last frost date. Planting too early can stall or weaken your seedlings, leaving them more vulnerable to pests and diseases; while planting too late might not give the plants enough time to mature before summer’s intense heat hits.

Calculating your last frost date is easiest when you refer to average frost dates in your area and hardiness zone. With this data, you can plan your planting schedule according to what works best in your climate.

You can find the average last frost date for your area by searching online or reaching out to your university extension service. They will provide more detailed information regarding your hardiness zone, average last frost date, as well as a map of the surrounding area.

Another way to determine your last frost date is by consulting your seed packets or catalog, which should provide guidelines regarding when to start seeds indoors and when to transplant them into your garden. Common seeds that can be directly planted in the ground such as peas and lettuce typically need to be planted one week prior to your last frost date.

Some cool-weather vegetables, such as Swiss chard, kale, spinach and radishes can be planted outside before your last frost date if the soil hasn’t frozen. Some annual flowers like pansies and snapdragons also benefit from planting before this date if the soil hasn’t frozen solid yet.

When planting more delicate crops like tomatoes and basil that require regular freezing, wait until after your last frost date. Warm-weather crops such as potatoes and peppers can be planted after your last frost date provided nighttime temperatures remain above 50 degrees Fahrenheit.

The last frost date is the average day when temperatures fall to 32degF or below, which can cause frost formation and kill young plants. While your last frost date may differ slightly each year, knowing it allows you to plan your seed starting schedule according to this date.

Temperature

When raising plants from seed, it’s essential to provide them with a suitable environment. Many factors can influence germination rates, such as soil temperature and light level.

Ideal timing for planting seedlings is when the soil has become sufficiently moist and has warmed for several days. To determine if your soil is warm enough for germination, you can use a soil thermometer – an inexpensive tool that makes this easy!

Some seeds require cooler temperatures, while others thrive in warmer climates. Be sure to check the package for recommended soil temperatures prior to planting.

Cool-season seeds such as lettuce and peas can germinate in soil temperatures below freezing; on the other hand, peppers and tomatoes require soil temperatures above 50degF for successful growth.

If your soil is too cold for germination, you could end up with seedlings that take too long to germinate and are vulnerable to mold or disease. To ensure a successful transplant, wait until daytime temperatures average above 60 degrees Fahrenheit before transplanting.

It is best to avoid planting seedlings on sunny or windy days as this can cause them to go into “transplant shock,” where they lose moisture and develop stunted growth patterns and poor harvest.

Vegetable crops typically thrive when the soil temperature is between 75-85degF (23-88degC). Some fruit seeds require cold stratification before planting, so be sure to read all instructions prior to sowing.

When planting a seedling, the ideal time is when it has 3-4 true leaves. These will be the first ones to emerge and serve as stored food for your plant.

Once your seedlings are ready to be transplanted into the garden, it is essential to “harden off.” Hardening off is the process of gradually exposing plants to outdoor conditions in order to reduce the chance of transplant shock.

Begin the hardening off process a few weeks prior to transplanting your plants outdoors. You can do this by gradually bringing them outdoors over several days or by setting them on the patio during daytime to become accustomed to the weather conditions.

Soil

Seedlings require warm, moist soil in order to germinate. That is why it’s so important to check the soil temperature before planting, as many seeds won’t take root if it’s too cold. You can test this by sticking your finger in it; if it feels cool but not freezing cold, then it should be safe for planting.

Seeds require light to grow and thrive, so it’s best to plant them outdoors before the sun sets. If you have windows or lights inside your home, then this step is much simpler; otherwise, wait until outdoor temperatures are warm enough before transplanting your seeds outdoors.

When you’re ready to plant your seedlings, select containers large enough for the entire plant. This will give them enough room to develop roots and thrive. Fill these containers with an excellent potting mix like Miracle-Gro Seed Starting Potting Mix and give them plenty of water before transplanting them into your garden.

You should also “harden off” your seedlings, which is the process of gradually exposing them to outdoor conditions in a way that helps them build strength. This may take one week or longer, but the process ensures your plants have an easy transition and aren’t stressed out by an abrupt move.

When planting seedlings, the exact date to transplant depends on a few factors including your area’s average last frost date and what type of vegetables you have growing. In general, cool-season veggies like lettuce, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, and onions should be planted two weeks before your region’s last spring frost date.

Warm-season vegetables such as tomatoes, peppers, eggplant and kale should be planted after the last spring frost date. They do not thrive when nighttime lows drop below 50degF (13degC).

When transplanting warm-season seedlings outdoors, wait until after your area’s average last frost date and nighttime temperatures don’t dip below 50degF during the day. This will help your plants establish a strong root system before any frost threatens to hurt or kill them.

Light

Plants are more likely to germinate and flourish when given adequate light, particularly vegetables where lack of illumination may result in failed germination attempts.

Grow lights offer an effective solution to this issue and will give your seedlings the best chance for success. They allow you to control exposure time, heat output and location to reduce the likelihood of not flourishing. Fluorescent bulbs are usually sufficient for most beginning grow-light gardeners; however, an LED or fluorescent grow light meter can help monitor and pinpoint exactly how much light reaches each plant daily.

You can also invest in a lighted growing tent that provides enough light for seedlings. This is an ideal option if you don’t have enough space in your home or are unable to grow seeds outdoors with natural lighting.

When selecting soil for young plants, opt for a lightweight mix that’s hydrated and provides excellent drainage. Since their roots will still be weak, you need to ensure the soil can support them adequately.

Once your seedlings have sprouted and their first set of true leaves are visible, transfer them to a small pot filled with potting mix. This will give them some time to toughen up before transplanting into the garden, helping ensure a successful transplant.

Once your seedlings are mature enough to go outside into the garden, the ideal time to transplant them is when they have several sets of true leaves and the weather has become stable with less wind. This process, known as hardening off the plant, takes anywhere from 7 to 10 days and involves gradual exposure to outside elements.

If you are sowing seeds in trays, be sure to rotate the trays daily and position them over top of your grow lights. Adjust the lights so they are several inches above your plants’ tops so their leaves don’t touch them.

Keep a watering can on hand at all times, so that your seedlings have access to an ongoing supply of water. Label your sowings accordingly, so you can quickly identify both the type and variety of seeds you’ve sown.

2024 © Seed and Harvest. All Rights Reserved.