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garden seedlings

Vegetables and flowers often require a period of growth before they can mature into healthy, hardy seedlings that can survive outdoors.

Most gardeners begin seeds indoors or in plug trays and transplant them to larger containers once they have sprouted true seedlings. However, some crops require direct sowing into the garden; these won’t thrive when transferred.


Germination is the process that transforms a seed into an abundant garden plant. It occurs when sufficient water, nutrients and air reach the seed so it can stimulate root growth. As this takes place, new roots, shoots and leaves emerge to capture solar energy for further development.

Seed germination rates can differ based on species, environmental conditions and time of year. For instance, some cool climate seeds have developed mechanisms to delay germination until ideal temperatures are achieved.

Seeds must be exposed to soil that is just moist enough, not wet, for germination to take place. This causes the seed coat to swell and open, allowing water and essential nutrients to reach the embryo.

Many seeds possess a food reserve, known as the pericarp. This contains essential nutrients like carbohydrates and proteins to nourish the growing seed embryo. When water is added to these seeds, their pericarp dissolves and this marks an important milestone on their journey towards germination.

Some seeds can be soaked in water for short bursts before planting to help them draw up moisture more quickly, increasing their germination rate. This can be accomplished by placing them either in a shallow bowl of water or placing them on damp paper towel and sealing a baggie with them.

Seeds that require a longer germination period may need to be kept in water for several days before sprouting. Be careful not to puncture the seed coat or damage its pericarp, as this could potentially result in death of the embryo.

Vegetable seeds typically thrive in cool to medium soil temperatures. You can start some seeds outdoors early in the season before it gets too cold outside, but others like arugula, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, cress, kale, kohlrabi lettuce mustard onions parsley peas radish spinach and turnips should be planted indoors before the last frost.


Garden seedlings require light to germinate, which is a fundamental requirement for growing healthy plants. In fact, it can make all the difference between a plant that produces flowers or vegetables and one that doesn’t.

Fortunately, there are multiple methods to guarantee your seeds germinate successfully. To start, it’s best to start your seedlings indoors under supplemental lighting.

To achieve these benefits, consider investing in a set of grow lights for your kitchen or basement. They are easily available at most local hardware stores, online retailers or garden centers.

While they can be a bit pricey, the quality of a good set will make it worthwhile. Plus, these sets are energy-efficient and built to last.

Start by selecting a seed starting fixture that allows you to adjust the intensity of the light. A fluorescent shop light or LED (light-emitting diode) bulb are both excellent choices.

It’s best to keep the lights about two inches above seedlings so they don’t burn their leaves. Watch for signs of leaf burning, such as yellowing and scorched or bleached papery spots on the leaves.

Once the seedlings have sprouted, you can place them under a supplemental grow light for more light. This will encourage your seeds to thrive and be ready for transplanting outdoors within 5 to 10 weeks.

As a general guideline, provide your seedlings with 14-16 hours of consistent full-spectrum light daily. You can also use an outlet timer to make keeping to a schedule easier.


Garden seedlings require the ideal balance of water and temperature to thrive. Temperature can affect germination and growth, but it’s essential to remember that each plant is unique.

Cool season vegetables such as spinach and broccoli thrive best when soil temperatures range between 55-65 degrees Fahrenheit (13-21 degrees C). On the other hand, warm season plants like tomatoes and marigolds flourish best between 70-85 degrees F (21-30 degrees C).

Many gardeners have discovered the value of a simple soil thermometer as an invaluable tool when sowing seeds or transplants. You can pick one up at your local garden center for only a few dollars and keep track of soil temperatures before sowing seeds or transplants.

When measuring soil temperatures, it’s best to do so at the recommended planting depth for seeds and new plants. In a mixed garden, check at least 5-6 inches below surface.

For instance, when planting a tomato garden, it is best to measure the soil temperatures in the early morning before the sun comes up. A consistent 70 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit temperature without drafts or cold nights is ideal for seed germination.

Tomato seeds typically take two weeks to germinate. To expedite their sprouting process, keep them on a heat mat until they are ready – usually within five days.

Pepper seeds tend to take longer to germinate, taking about 2-3 weeks on average. To expedite their germination process, place them on a heat mat until planting time (approximately 10 days). Ideal temperatures for peppers and tomatoes should remain between 70-80degF (15.5degC) with no drafts or cold nights.


No matter if you start seeds indoors or transplant them outdoors, providing garden seedlings with adequate water can make all the difference in how successfully they thrive and produce flowers, fruits, and vegetables. Watering too little may cause wilting or death while overwatering can rot or drown plants.

Garden seedlings require a consistent supply of water to stay healthy and strong, so it is essential to know when to water them correctly. There are various factors to take into account when watering, such as temperature, pot size, and growing medium.

When starting garden plants from seeds, it is best to water them with room temperature water. Doing this helps avoid shocking your seedlings which could cause them to wilt or die.

When watering seedlings, it’s wise to use a can or hose attachment with either an intermittent shower-like flow or fine mist option. Doing this will prevent your plants from drying out and becoming more vulnerable to disease and pest infestations.

Once your seedlings have several sets of leaves, it’s time to transplant them into a larger container. This process, known as “potting up,” is an ideal way to give your garden seeds the best possible start.

You can purchase or make a self-watering system for your seedlings that allows them to absorb moisture from their trays. Place a flat tray beneath each cell, then fill it with water up to one-quarter inch above each cell’s bottom. This way, water will seep up through the bottoms of each cell and keep the soil moist.

After two or three weeks, your seedlings should be ready to be outdoors. To harden off your sprouts, allow them to stay outdoors for 3 or 4 hours per day, gradually acclimatizing themselves to outdoor temperatures and conditions.


Garden seedlings are small plants and require different fertilizer requirements than full-grown plants. A balanced fertilizer that contains nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N-P-K) should be used for their needs.

Once a plant grows its first set of true leaves, it’s ready for fertilization. These initial cotyledon leaves look very different from the next set which are actual leaves that will grow on the plant. Cotyledon leaves provide essential food until their counterparts appear; at that point they’ll receive extra nutrients to develop strong roots and stems.

Liquid organic fertilizer is the ideal fertilizer for seedlings. Formulated to be water soluble, these nutrients break down quickly when soil moisture increases and help keep your seeds and young plants healthy by providing them with essential nutrients they need to develop into strong, mature plants.

When using liquid organic fertilizers, start by feeding your seedlings a dilute solution and gradually increase their strength as your plants mature. Avoid granular fertilizers during the initial applications as they can easily cause burns to seeds or roots that could prove fatal for young seedlings.

No matter the organic fertilizer you choose, soil temperature is another crucial element when fertilizing seedlings. Cool soils can reduce nutrient availability, especially when using a potting mix that contains microbial activity.

For optimal results, feed your seedlings a water-soluble fertilizer once each week and increase the strength as the plants mature. Fish emulsion, kelp liquid or compost tea are all excellent choices for this purpose.

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